Gastrointestinal Disorders

Gastrointestinal Disorders
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) IBD – comprised of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) – is a chronic inflammatory disease with growing prevalence in the Western world. It is believed to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that trigger an inappropriate mucosal inflammatory response. A role for the microbiome in...

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Cancer

Cancer
Huge unexplained inter- and intra-laboratory differences in the lifespan of isogenic Atm deficient mice from 2 months to 11.5 months exist in the literature. The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in our health; in part because these bacteria outnumber the human cells in our body by 10-fold and because they have a huge metabolic...

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Obesity and Metabolism

Obesity and Metabolism
The worldwide rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity has been paralleled by a renewed interest in understanding the mechanisms associated with this epidemic. Amongst the many factors that have been implicated as possible causations, changes in our diet (increased processed food consumption) have been pointed as one of the most important players. Since the...

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Oral Biology

Oral Biology
Recent advances in molecular biological techniques are broadening our understanding of bacterial diversity and the societal community interactions which occur between species within oral cavity. They led to tremendous advances in our understanding of oral microbiome and its involvement in health and disease, not only with oral infectious diseases, such as tooth decay and gum...

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Cognition and Mental Health

Cognition and Mental Health
Nearly 1 in 5 individuals in the U.S. suffers from a mental disorder, yet the underlying causes for many psychiatric illnesses are largely unknown, and effective treatments are lacking. Recent preclinical studies have revealed striking effects of microbiome manipulations on complex, higher-order behaviors, including anxiety, sociability, cognition and emotional behavior. Moreover, molecular assessments reveal a...

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Skin Diseases

Skin Diseases
The skin is the largest organ in the human body and provides the first line of defense against environmental attack and pathogen invasion. The skin is also a host for hundreds of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic mites, and viruses. Immediately after birth, diverse microbial communities at different skin sites with unique physiological and immunological...

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Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease
Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease Buildup of plaque, as a result of the accumulation of cholesterol, oxidized lipids, leukocytes, cellular waste products, and calcium, inside the artery wall results in atherosclerosis and the narrowing of large and medium-sized arteries that can lead to coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. Artery wall metabolism, lipoproteins, immune system...

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Aging

Aging
Advancements in science and medicine have led to a steady increase in life expectancy around the world. Some older adults show increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative or infectious diseases, and gradual decline in health beyond the normal expected regression of physiological function due to the aging process. The elderly are especially at risk for poor nutritional...

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Connective Tissue Diseases

Connective Tissue Diseases
Autoimmune disorders involving the connective tissue have complex pathogenetic origins and diverse clinical manifestations. Systemic sclerosis (or scleroderma) has the highest cause specific mortality of all of the connective tissue diseases, and the majority of patients with systemic sclerosis suffer from serious gastrointestinal tract symptoms. While the cause of gastrointestinal tract dysfunction in systemic sclerosis...

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